I see that you already tried using a USB 3.0 extension cable. I would check to see if it is actually a USB 3.- cable and not simply a cable that "works with USB 3.0". My brother told me a story about when he worked for a computer shop, they would sell USB 2.0 cables that were marketed (by the manufacturer) as USB 3.0 compatible. It wasn't a lie but it was much like saying Xbox 360 games will work in an Xbox One. They are backwards compatible but still don't perform as well. As you may know, USB 3.0 is not only faster but also supplies 900mA instead of just 500mA as does the USB 2.0. This actually may be your problem as it was likely mine. The 500mA is enough to get the blue light on, but not enough to power the card so much that your computer recognizes it.
I must say I was disappointing in HTC for committing anything on their website about the need for our computers to be in the same room as our Vive play area. I like you all was left having to figure this out on my own. I want to thank the posters in this thread for all the help. After a few weeks I finally have my wireless working and am loving it.
Here is what I did.
Order my HTC Vive Wireless Adapter
Literally is on my doorstep the next day (OMG)
Plug it in to my computer, set it up, wonder what the hell is going on.
Extreme disappointment sets in
Hit up this forum and reddit and realize this is an huge oversight by HTC.
Realize that extending the antenna will result in signal loss, but extending the PCI-e card will not.
Purchase this part (https://www.amazon.ca/gp/product/B07N38Y799/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1) and wait a week
Download and 3d Print this model(https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4045975) thank you gullberg88
Drill a hole through my wall and print this handly little mount (https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3195432) thank you doppelkeks
Part comes, get excited, plug it use my usb extension, nothing
Troubleshoot everything, pots, cords, uninstall vive wireless, reinstall...
Second round of disappointment
Research USB 2.0 vs 3.0 and find an actual 3.0 cord (https://www.amazon.ca/gp/product/B00C7SA21U/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1) and wait a week
Get my part today, plug it in, turn my computer on.. . nothing....
Take a deep breath, uninstall vive wireless, reinstall......
I hope you and others can find the same success!